Types of aircraft wings - Aviation for Aviators
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Types of aircraft wings



We all know that an aircraft’s wings are one of the most significant, if not the most crucial, components of the plane. As it provides lift, which allows the plane to leave the ground and take off, as well as hold the fuel. As a result, wings feature streamlined cross-sections that operate as airfoils and are subject to aerodynamic forces. However, as anyone with even a basic knowledge of the aviation industry knows this, planes have a wide range of wing designs. This article will go through the types of wings.


Wings configuration and shape:

When you look at different types of planes, you’ll see that their wing shapes and configurations vary. What are the different sorts of wings?
Wings come in a variety of forms and sizes. Wing design can be altered to achieve specific flight characteristics. As the shape of the wing is changed, control at various operating speeds, the amount of lift generated balance, and stability all change.
The wing’s leading and trailing edges might be straight or curved, or one edge can be straight and the other curved. One or both edges of the wing may be tapered, resulting in a wing that is narrower at the tip than at the root, where it connects to the fuselage. The tip of the wing might be square, rounded, or pointed.

Low wing, mid-wing, high wing, dihedral wing, anhedral wing, gull wing, and inverted gull wing are the seven major wing configurations used on planes. In addition, aircraft wings come in five various shapes: rectangular, tapered straight, elliptical, swept, and delta.


This indicates that there are a total of 35 different wing configurations; however, not all wing forms can be employed in all of them. Therefore, there are a variety of possible combinations and setups.


Types of Aircraft Wings, Based On Mounting Position And Style:

Low Wing Configuration

The low wing design is quite popular, and it’s probably the one you’re most familiar with if you just fly single-engine planes. While some smaller planes (such as the Cessna 172), do not employ the low wing design, the majority do.

The term “low wing configuration” simply refers to the wings being situated low on the plane’s fuselage, below the center. This layout is advantageous to pilots since it often provides the best overall sight because the pilots will have an unrestricted view to the left, right, ahead, and up. This standard layout also makes planes easier to handle and a little more sensitive to control modifications.


Mid Wing Configuration

When the wings are situated right in the center of the plane’s body, halfway up the fuselage, it’s called a mid-wing arrangement. Because this wing arrangement needs support inside the fuselage to support the installation of the wings, the total useable area inside the fuselage is substantially reduced. This is why this arrangement is far less common than the other two with the same name.

The most significant advantage of the mid-wing design is that the plane is as balanced as it can be in flight and provides superior stability to low-wing planes. In exchange, these planes are often less responsive and nimble than their low-wing counterparts.


High Wing Configuration

This is the design in which the wings are attached to the fuselage at the top. This is the sort of arrangement you’ll find on large freight and military planes, as well as certain smaller planes like the Cessna 172 Skyhawk discussed above.


The high wing layout is good for big freight and military transport planes because it allows the fuselage to be closer to the ground, making cargo and people loading and unloading simpler. The reason for this is that the engines are located on the bottom of the wings, but because the wings are situated high on the fuselage, the engines have plenty of room beneath and the fuselage can still be near to the ground.

Credit to : groupidea.com

Dihedral Wing Configuration

The fundamental difference between wings with this configuration and those without is that the tips of the wings are higher than the base that attaches to the fuselage. To promote stability when flying and turning, the wings are slanted up from the plane’s body, which is normally situated low on the fuselage. This design is great for tiny planes because it allows them to quickly level down and be stable after a fast flight.

Boeing 777
Credit to : http://www.boldmethod.com

Anhedral Wing Configuration

Because the wings are oriented downward from the fuselage to the end of the wings, their tips are lower than their bases. The wings are normally installed in the high wing configuration, attached to the plane on the upper surface of the body, to guarantee there is adequate room for it.

This is one of the least frequent wing layouts, with just a handful of current aircraft using it. When other sections of the plane contribute too much lateral stability, anhedral wings are often utilized to lessen stability.

British Aerospace 146
Credit to : http://www.aviatest.eu
Credit to : http://www.rccad2vr.com

Gull Wing Configuration

The gull-wing layout employs a dihedral wing shape that angles upwards right at the body. However, after a short distance, the dihedral angle is either greatly decreased or completely negated, and the remainder of the wing may be flat.

The primary motivation for the development of gull wings was to provide sufficient space for engines and propellers. There is enough room for propellers and the pilot’s view in the immediate region beyond the cockpit is increased by arching sharply upwards and then flattening out. A peculiar yet extremely helpful design.

Credit to : wikipedia.org/wiki/Gull_wing

Inverted Gull Wing

The inverted gull wing is the inverse of the regular gull-wing configuration. The wings are installed at the bottom of the airplane and then shoot rapidly downward, resembling an inverted dihedral, with this wing layout. Then, like a conventional dihedral wing, they kick back upwards – each wing generates its own long-tailed “V” shape.

The inverted gull wing arrangement is utilized to reinforce the plane while also reducing overall weight, two tasks that are normally difficult to do simultaneously. This is due to the fact that this specific wing type allows the undercarriage on which the wings are mounted to be shortened and the fuselage to be lifted, resulting in a construction that is both lighter and stronger.

Credit to : aviation.stackexchange.com

Types of Aircraft Wings Based On Shape and Design

Rectangular Wing

The rectangular wing is the simplest to visualize in your mind without understanding anything about aviation or wing design in general. It is the most basic wing, not only in terms of recognition but also in terms of construction owing to its simplicity.

There are no odd angles to account for, and they are simply made up of straight lines. All of these benefits are fantastic for manufacturing, but they aren’t so great for real flight. Rectangular wings are not the most aerodynamic of wing forms, which is why they are rarely seen in modern aircraft.

Credit to : aerocorner.com

Tapered Straight Wing

Due to a far more aerodynamic design overall, this tapered form substantially boosted the plane’s efficiency, but it’s still not a very good wing in the broad scheme of things.
Apart from being an improvement over the rectangular form, the tapered wing had one major advantage: it was still very simple to construct. It’s a little more difficult to construct than the rectangular wing, but it’s still a lot easier than some of the better overall designs.

North American Aviation P-51 Mustang
Credit to : aerocorner.com

Elliptical Wing

One of the most efficient and aerodynamic wing forms ever devised is the elliptical wing. It’s very efficient in terms of aerodynamics since the entire wing may benefit from the wing’s curve and the resulting lift distribution.
Its downside is that they are extremely difficult to produce.
To begin with, the entire wing is curved, which is significantly more difficult to manufacture than the rectangular wing’s straight lines.
Second, these wings were meant to be as thin as possible, which adds to the production challenges.

Credit to : aerocorner.com

Swept Wing

They are Wing tips that are swept back relative to the base where they are affixed to the fuselage are
The form of swept-back wings actually decreases drag during flight, which is a significant benefit. This allows the airplane to fly through the air more effectively since it is not subjected to the negative effects of drag. High-speed commercial jets that travel at transonic speeds often have swept-back wings

Swept back wings 
Boeing 787 Dreamliner 
Credit to : aerocorner.com

Delta Wing

Delta wings are triangular-shaped wings that are primarily employed with supersonic aircraft in certain conditions. They have the distinct benefit of being efficient in both subsonic and supersonic flight, which is something that the bulk of wing forms cannot claim. Also, they give a vast surface area, which makes the aircraft extremely agile.
Its disadvantages are as follows:

  • The delta wings’ low aspect ratio generates excessive drag, which is not desirable.
  • Because of their design and the lift, they create at low speeds, delta wings require a high angle of attack during takeoff and landing.



The Story of the A220, how it Came About and How it’s Becoming Popular




Aside from the fact that the Airbus A220 is the only airbus aircraft to not have a 3 in its name, the A220 is special from the fact that it isn’t fully made by Airbus, but instead a joint venture between them and Bombardier. This is all because of what some might call a mistake made by Boeing, causing Airbus to acquire a 50.01% stake in the company. In this article I explore its controversial creation, and why it’s needed.


The Airbus A220 was first named the “CSeries” by Bombardier, and was meant to cater to the demand of small aircraft in between their current-sized fleet and those larger already made by Airbus and Boeing. The particular area where it was expected to boom were the US markets, given there is always demand to be flying from small airports as there is no lack of them in the large country. At first, things were running smoothly and it was expected to enter commercial service in 2014, just one year after its first flight. However, things turned out not to go as planned, and the CSeries encountered issues on one of its test flights, causing it to miss the Farnborough air show, the largest in the industry, and delay its release. This was not good for the aircraft, nearly causing the project and the company to go bust, until financial aid was provided by the Canadian government.

(Credit: Simple Flying)

Boeing’s crucial mistake

Eventually, these problems were fixed, and the first CSeries was delivered to SWISS on June 26, 2016. Eventually, more orders began to come for the new aircraft, including the critical ones in the US. In fact, Bombardier was offering Delta 75 of the aircraft at $20 million a piece, a price which was even lower than the cost to build them, and a cost which was just too good to refuse. However, this was contested and was seen to be Dumping, when a manufacturer essentially gives away its aircraft as sort-of “Samples”, and is illegal in the US and other countries. Boeing was quick to take action, claiming that it was stealing the market from its 737s, despite the fact that Delta had explicitly said that they weren’t looking to purchase the variants that Boeing were claiming to be losing out. It was then decided that, given Bombardier was a foreign company, the US government would impose a 300% import tariff, something near-destructible for the company.

(Credit: Aviation Week)

Airbus saves the day

However, Airbus decided to step in and acquire a 50% stake in the company, something beneficial for both parties concerned. This was good for Bombardier, as Airbus has its final assembly station situated in Alabama in the US, meaning that seen as the aircraft technically wasn’t foreign, the import tariff wouldn’t be imposed on it. This would also help Airbus, as it would mean that the company would now profit off of an aircraft which had no competitors at the time. This allowed the aircraft to be reintroduced to the US market, allowing it to thrive.

(Credit: Aviation Week)

Where it is now

Now, the CSeries has been re-branded to be the Airbus A220, a move which has knocked it out of the park for the world’s largest aircraft manufacturer. This has allowed airbus to spend absolutely no money on development, and come away with an excellent aircraft, which is dominating its playing field. As of April 2023, 251 aircraft have been delivered, with another 785 firm orders. The airlines operating the aircraft include Delta, JetBlue, SWISS and airBaltic, who operate a fleet solely made up of the A220. When Aviation for Aviators asked their CEO, Martin Gauss, about the aircraft, he said that “The aircraft has performed beyond the company’s expectations, delivering better overall performance, fuel efficiency, and convenience for both passengers and the staff.”

(Credit: Wikipedia)


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Airlines of the World

An interview with Helvetic Airways CEO, Tobias Pogorevc



Helvetic Airways is a Swiss airline which operates its fleet of Embraer aircraft to destinations such as Greek islands and the Egyptian Red sea coast from their hubs in Switzerland. Their CEO, Tobias Pogorevc, has been in charge of the company since 2018 and overseen major developments such as the introduction of the Embraer E195 E2 and E190 E2 to their fleet. I put some questions to the man himself about the environment and the pandemic.

What do you see as the biggest challenge to the aviation industry at the moment?

One of the biggest challenges in the entire aviation industry is the staff situation. The pandemic
disrupted the entire aviation ecosystem and the situation is still very tense in the personnel area – both
on the ground and in the air. Helvetic Airways was able to counteract the natural fluctuation in the
cabin through early recruitment measures. In addition, as of the beginning of 2023, Helvetic Airways
has significantly expanded its existing and very popular part-time models for cabin crews, and now
offers various innovative models with “Fly your way”, in which cabin attendants can determine their
own assignments on a weekly, monthly or annual basis. Today, we employ over 240 flight attendants
and senior flight attendants in the cabin crew – more than ever before in the history of Helvetic
In the cockpit, we benefit from the good and long-standing cooperation with our sister company
Horizon Swiss Flight Academy. From this pool, we were able to recruit 24 pilots this year.
Another challenge relates to supply chains, from carpet suppliers to engine manufacturers. This will
keep the industry busy for a long time to come.

(Image credit: Aviator Newsroom)

How are you lessening the impact of Helvetic’s aircraft?

Helvetic Airways has renewed almost its entire fleet between 2019 and 2021 and now has 12 state-of-
the-art Embraer E2s – eight E190-E2s with 110 seats and four E195-E2s with 134 seats – and four
Embraer E190s. Helvetic Airways thus operates one of the most modern regional jet fleets in Europe
and the most modern fleet in Switzerland. The Embraer-E2 is currently the most environmentally
friendly regional aircraft on the market. Compared to the E1, the E190-E2 consumes 20 to 23% less
fuel per seat on European routes and the E195-E2 up to 30% less. Our own measured values are
even higher than Embraer’s factory specifications.

The E2 also sets new standards in terms of noise emissions, impressing in particular with its low noise
levels both inside the cabin and outside. The noise diagrams for departures from Zurich Airport show:
The noise contour of the Embraer E195-E2 is 28% lower than for the Airbus A319 and 60% lower than
for the Airbus A320. Particularly for airports near densely populated areas, the ability to reduce the
noise impact on people is an important factor.


What lessons did you learn from the pandemic?

In aviation, crisis situations are regularly trained for, but no one was prepared for a global crisis like the
Corona pandemic. We kept all our crews current during the pandemic so that we would be ready when
business picked up again. In retrospect, that was absolutely the right decision. But then the restart
happened faster than expected. On the one hand, we all had to get back to the “old normal” as quickly
as possible; on the other hand, the pandemic was not yet over – a balancing act that placed enormous
demands on the entire industry.
The pandemic showed us that even when things are at a standstill, you always have to keep moving.
As an airline with lean structures, we have the opportunity to implement new ideas and innovations
quickly, which proved its worth during the restart after the pandemic.

(Image credit: Aviation24be)

How is the Russo-Ukrainian war affecting Helvetic Airways’ business?

The Ukraine war and the fates associated with it are terrible but have no immediate impact on us as a
regional airline from an operational point of view. Our routes do not pass over Russian or Ukrainian
territory, which may not be flown over at present. What we do feel, however, are the indirect effects of
the war, for example on the fuel prices.

You have been CEO of the company since 2018, what has been the biggest change you have seen in the company since you became in charge?

On the one hand, as a small, private company, the fleet renewal to an E2 fleet has been very busy for
us. It is something special that we, as a niche player, can rely on the most modern fleet. But this is
only possible thanks to the financial strength of our owner, which got us through the Covid crisis even
without government aid. Today, we are financially strong, with no liabilities.
On the other hand, there was the biggest difference in the area of human resources: the needs that
applied in 2018 are outdated today. Today, we need to offer innovative and flexible working models to
recruit the best young talent. Work-life balance, diversity, inclusion must not just be buzzwords, they
must be lived.

Mr Pogorevc has been CEO of the company since 2018 (Image credit: Helvetic Airways)

Helvetic airways operates a fleet solely made up of Embraer aircraft, why was the decision made to do this?

Before unifying to an all Embraer fleet, Helvetic Airways operated Fokker100 aircraft, an Airbus A319
and Embraer E1 aircraft, four of which are still in our fleet today. The cooperation with Embraer was
excellent from the beginning and the development of the E2 series progressed well also due to our
experience and input from Switzerland. So the decision was also obvious to carry out the planned fleet
renewal in 2019 to 2021 with the new Embraer E2 models. The Embraer E2 is an aircraft of the latest
generation and therefore the right aircraft for the future. The E2 consumes significantly less fuel than
the E1 and, especially in times of high kerosene prices, it makes economic sense to operate an
aircraft that saves 20 to 30% fuel on certain routes at high load factors.
Another key reason for choosing the E2 jet was the commonalities, which is particularly advantageous
in the areas of training and maintenance.
All our pilots are certified for both the E1 and the E2, and the maintenance in our hangar is also
certified for both types of aircraft. We operate the aircraft, we maintain it and we have our own flight
school, the Horizon Swiss Flight Academy, where we train our pilots and engineers – all from Zurich.
In other words, we have specialists for all areas: training, operations and maintenance – in effect we
have become the Embraer competence center in Europe.

(Image credit: Flickr)

And Finally, what can we see in the near future for Helvetic airways?

First and foremost, our goal is to continue to offer our partners, customers and passengers reliable
flight operations with top service. In doing so, we will continue to rely on our three main pillars of
wetlease, charter and scheduled flights. Furthermore, we want to remain a good and modern employer
for our employees. Due to our manageable size, we remain agile and score with innovation and a
family atmosphere with flat hierarchies. We will continue to promote this spirit. From April, for example,
the first “Helvetic shared apartments” will be ready for occupancy – apartments rented by Helvetic
Airways and sublet to employees who do not have their main place of residence in Zurich. These
colleagues should immediately feel at home in our Helvetic family!

(Credit: Helvetic Airways)

Cover image credit: Flikr

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Brussels Airlines’ Female Crew on International Women’s Day 2023



Brussels Airlines Airbus 320, painted with the Bruegel Livery. Taken at Ben Gurion airport.

On March 8th, International Women’s Day 2023, Brussels Airlines made history by operating a flight from Brussels to Marseille with an all-female cockpit crew. This milestone marks the first time that the airline had ever flown with an all-female cockpit crew, and it sends a powerful message of support for gender equality in the aviation industry.

Brussels Airlines is the flag carrier airline of Belgium and operates flights to over 120 destinations, with a fleet of more than 50 aircraft offering both economy and business class seating. The airline is also committed to sustainability and supports social initiatives through its charity program, b.foundation for Africa. Its subsidiary, Brussels Airlines Cargo, provides cargo services.

Captain Anne-Sophie Godart, First Officer Charlotte Verstraete, and Flight Engineer Virginie Dupon, all highly experienced pilots with a combined total of more than 25,000 flight hours, were the crew who operated the special flight. The three women were honored to be part of this historic event, with Captain Godart stating, “It’s an honor to be part of this flight and to be able to make a statement about gender equality in the aviation industry. We are proud to be able to show that women can do the same job as men, and that we can do it just as well.”

The flight was a success, and the crew received cheers and applause upon arrival in Marseille. It was a powerful statement of support for gender equality in the aviation industry, and a reminder that women are capable of anything men can do.

Brussels Airlines has been actively recruiting more female pilots and creating a more inclusive and supportive work environment for all of its employees. This flight was a proud moment for the airline, which is committed to promoting gender equality in the aviation industry and providing equal opportunities for all.


As International Women’s Day 2023 is celebrated, it is a time to acknowledge the progress made in the fight for gender equality, but also recognize the work that still needs to be done. Brussels Airlines‘ all-female cockpit crew serves as a beacon of hope for aspiring female pilots and a symbol of progress for the aviation industry as a whole.

Let us soar higher on this International Women’s Day 2023, celebrating the fearless women who have conquered the skies and shattered stereotypes in aviation, inspiring generations to come.

Captain Anne-Sophie Godart, pilot of Brussels Airlines’ all-female crew, celebrates International Women’s Day 2023 in the cockpit
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