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Jet Engines: How They Work and Power Modern Aviation?



via Aviation Business Middle East

Jet engines revolutionized air travel over half a century ago, propelling humanity to new heights of speed, efficiency, and accessibility. Understanding the intricate workings of these powerful engines can be a daunting task, but with the right guidance, it becomes an intriguing exploration of modern aviation technology. In this article, we will demystify jet engines and delve into their inner workings, from gas turbines to their incredible material science.

The Gas Turbine: The Heart of Jet Engines

Via Energy Education

The gas turbine serves as the driving force behind jet engines, using the Brayton cycle process to create pressurized gas for generating electricity or supplying kinetic energy to aircraft. In all modern gas turbines, combustion of fuels like natural gas, kerosene, propane, or jet fuel generates heat that expands air, propelling the turbine into action.

Key Components of Gas Turbines Although gas turbines may seem simple in theory, they consist of three primary components:

  1. Compressor: Captures air from outside the turbine and amplifies its pressure.
  2. Combustor: Burns fuel, producing high-pressure and high-velocity gas.
  3. Turbine: Harvests energy from the gas flowing out of the combustor, as illustrated in the diagram below:
Jet Engines
This diagram shows the primary components of gas turbines, via Energy Education

a. Compressor Functionality:

As shown in the diagram above, the compressor pulls in air from the left, and numerous fan blades compress the gas. Some turbines can achieve air pressure up to 30 times greater than the initial input pressure.

b. Combustor Operations:

High-pressure air enters the combustor, where a constant fuel injection maintains a steady flow of energy throughout the turbine.


c. Turbine Performance:

The turbine, linked to the compressor blades by a shaft, rotates independently. The hot gas passing through the turbine allows it to reach remarkable speeds. The turbine connects to an output shaft, generating an impressive amount of horsepower—large airplane turbines, for example, can generate nearly 110,000 hp, which is double the power output of the Titanic.

Jet Engines
Via Asia Times

Read also: The Marvelous Complexity of Jet Engines: How Many Parts Do They Consist Of?

Turbofan engines, which power most modern commercial aircraft, belong to a family of engines called gas turbines. This family also includes engines used in helicopters, small power plants, and even certain types of tanks. The term “turbine” provides insight into how these engines function. Like wind or steam turbines, gas turbines rely on spinning to generate power, with pressurized air driving the rotation.

Fuel and Pressurized Air

Gas turbines need to produce highly pressurized air to maintain a continuous flow of power to the engine. To accomplish this, they burn energy-dense fuels like jet fuel, kerosene, or natural gas. Combusting these fuels expands the air, creating a rush of hot gas that spins the turbine.


The Four-Step Process: Suck, Squeeze, Bang, Blow

Before delving into the detailed workings of gas turbines, it’s essential to understand the basic four-step process that drives these engines: suck, squeeze, bang, and blow. This simple process helps explain how gas turbines harness the power of pressurized air and fuel combustion to generate energy for aircraft propulsion.

  1. Sucking Air In
    • Air is sucked into the engine from the front using a large fan, typically visible when looking at a plane head-on.
  2. Compressing the Air
    • The air is then compressed in the next stage of the engine, referred to as the “squeeze” phase. A second fan increases air pressure by approximately eight times, significantly raising its temperature in the process.
  3. Igniting the Fuel-Air Mixture
    • Fuel mixes with the compressed air and ignites, producing the “bang” and generating power. The hot, high-pressure air rushes past a set of turbine blades, causing them to spin. The turbine connects to the compressor and fan via an axle, so as the gases turn the turbine, the inlet fan and compressor fan also spin.
  4. Creating Thrust
    • The rapidly moving air propels the aircraft forward. Military jets and select passenger planes may use afterburners, which inject fuel directly into the exhaust jet for additional thrust. However, for most passenger planes, the force generated by the moving air is sufficient to provide adequate forward motion for the wings to create lift.
Via Barrios Engineering Portfolio

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Designing Jet Engines: Challenges and Innovations

Jet Engines
Via ThoughtCo

High Pressures and Temperatures

Though the basic principles behind jet engines may seem simple, designing them involves overcoming numerous challenges, particularly the extreme pressures and temperatures involved. Combustion chambers, where compressed air mixes with fuel, can reach temperatures exceeding 900°C (1,650°F).

The Quest for Suitable Materials

Traditional materials like steel proved unsuitable for withstanding the intense heat and pressures within jet engines, leading manufacturers to search for alternatives. Nickel-chromium alloys emerged as an ideal solution, offering lightness, affordability, strength, corrosion resistance, and the ability to retain integrity at up to 85% of their melting point (1,455°C or 2,651°F).


Cooling Strategies and Ceramic Coatings

To maintain the integrity of turbine components operating in temperatures exceeding their melting points, engine manufacturers employ ceramic coatings and cooling mechanisms. The coatings reduce heat penetration, while cool air is channeled to the blade surfaces from further up the engine and distributed through tiny holes. Neil Glover, Rolls-Royce chief of materials, explained in an interview with The Engineer that these measures keep the metal from melting, despite the extreme temperatures in the surrounding environment.

Advanced Materials Technology

Materials technology has progressed even further, manipulating the metal’s atomic structure to enhance its integrity. The tiny crystals comprising metals are engineered to grow in the same direction, eliminating weaknesses typically found at crystal boundaries. As a result, turbine blades are essentially gemstones, featuring a single atomic lattice throughout their structure.

Refining Nickel Alloys

Over time, manufacturers have refined nickel alloys by creating new mixes and adding different elements. This innovation allows turbine designers to tailor the perfect blend for each engine component, significantly enhancing overall performance.


READ ALSO: The Process of Attaching Aircraft Engines

The Balancing Act: Engine Size, Bypass Ratio, and Materials

  1. The Bypass Ratio:
    • Turbofan engines have generally increased in size as designs have evolved and improved. A significant portion of the thrust generated is due to incoming air being diverted around the compressor and turbine. The difference in the volume of air delivered to the turbine compared to the air bypassed is known as the “bypass ratio.” Engine efficiencies improve by increasing the bypass ratio, which typically involves creating a larger diameter engine.
  2. The Weight Conundrum
    • However, enlarging the engine also increases the weight of the fan sections, leading to heavier engines. For every additional kilogram of weight in the fan section, an extra 2.25 kg of support structure is required in the engine and wing.
  3. Composite Materials: The Solution
    • To counteract the increased weight from larger, more fuel-efficient engines, manufacturers have turned to composite materials as substitutes for metals. Ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) are as durable as metals but weigh only a third as much as nickel alloys.
  4. The GE9X: A Modern Marvel
    • The GE9X, currently the world’s largest engine for the Boeing 777X, utilizes composite materials in its fan blades and casing, as well as CMCs in the turbine and combustor. This powerful, lightweight, and resilient engine boasts a 10% improvement in fuel efficiency compared to its predecessor, the GE90, and is also the quietest engine ever produced by General Electric.

Read also: The Purpose Of Jet Engine Spirals

The Bottom Line

Jet Engines
Via KLM Blog – KLM Royal Dutch Airlines

Jet engines have come a long way since their inception, with constant innovations and improvements in design, materials, and efficiency. This fascinating exploration of jet engines reveals the incredible engineering feats and cutting-edge materials science that enable us to travel the world in record time. As aviation technology continues to advance, we can only imagine what the future holds for jet engines and air travel.

What other innovations do you think the future holds for jet engine technology? Share your thoughts in the comments below!


Youssef is the president and founder of Aviation for Aviators; in addition to his role as Chief-in-Editor of the platform's website, Youssef is currently pursuing an engineering degree at Nile University in Egypt. With his unique blend of passion, expertise, and entrepreneurial spirit, Youssef is passionate about combining these traits with aviation to provide a unique resource for aviation enthusiasts and professionals alike.

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Crucial Factors Affecting Aircraft Takeoff Distance and What Pilots Can Do About It




The adrenaline rush that accompanies the surge of power felt during an airplane’s takeoff is a captivating experience. However, the complexities of aircraft takeoff extend far beyond this initial thrill, deeply rooted in intricate maneuvering and meticulous calculations. This process, primarily defined in terms of Takeoff Distance (TOD), involves two main segments – the ground roll and the airborne distance necessary to reach the screen height of 35 ft. Multiple factors interplay to influence this takeoff distance. Let’s delve into factors affecting takeoff distance.

Atmospheric Influence on Takeoff Performance

Factors affecting takeoff distance
Photo via pilotinstitute

The performance of an aircraft is tightly knitted with atmospheric conditions, specifically the ambient temperature. As temperatures soar, the aircraft’s performance correspondingly takes a dip. This phenomenon is attributed to the rise in density altitude. An elevated density altitude impairs both the engine performance and the aerodynamics of the aircraft, necessitating a deeper understanding of the impact of density altitude on aircraft operations.

Another atmospheric factor playing a crucial role in aircraft takeoff is the prevailing wind conditions. Planes predominantly take off into the wind, as a headwind contributes to reducing the takeoff distance, whereas a tailwind tends to elongate it. This is due to the interaction between Indicated Air Speed (IAS), True Air Speed (TAS), and ground speed. If the wind direction and speed are accurately factored into the calculations, pilots can optimize their ground speed requirements, significantly impacting the takeoff distance.

Weight and Its Impact on Aircraft Takeoff

Factors affecting takeoff distance
Photo by Mario De Pian

Weight is another factor that plays a major role in influencing takeoff distance. An increase in the weight of the aircraft essentially means an increase in inertia, translating into the requirement of greater acceleration and a consequently longer runway. A weightier aircraft also imposes a higher load on the ground, escalating the wheel drag and friction. This heightened friction, combined with the need to attain a certain speed for lift-off, necessitates a longer runway roll for heavier aircraft, thereby increasing the takeoff distance.

Runway Conditions and their Role in Takeoff

Factors affecting takeoff distance
Photo by Philip Nyman

The runway, where the action unfolds, also contributes to the intricacies of aircraft takeoff. The characteristics of the runway surface, such as the presence of water, snow, or slush, can increase the friction experienced during takeoff, affecting the required distance. Similarly, the slope of the runway also plays a part in influencing the takeoff roll. An uphill runway works against the acceleration of the aircraft, while a downslope assists the acceleration, reducing the takeoff distance.

Mitigating Factors: Practical Strategies for Optimal Takeoff

Photo by Nicholas Young

Pilots employ a range of strategies to tackle these influencing factors and ensure a smooth takeoff. One such strategy is the modification of the aircraft’s configuration, such as the lowering of flaps, which can increase lift and reduce the required takeoff speed. However, a higher flap setting also poses its own challenges, emphasizing the need for a well-calculated balance.

Ignoring these factors can lead to a decrement in performance, potentially impacting safety. Fortunately, aircraft manufacturers equip pilots with critical information, such as Weight, Altitude, and Temperature (WAT) charts, to make informed decisions for safe takeoff operations.

Factors affecting takeoff distance
Photo by R.Bexten

Unraveling the complexities of aircraft takeoff and acknowledging the factors that influence it form the backbone of efficient aircraft operation. Such understanding is critical to maintaining the safety and efficiency of flights, particularly in the realm of general aviation, where stringent training and standardization may not always be in place.

READ ALSO: Cleared for takeoff | The take off procedure explained

We’ve discussed the complexities of aircraft takeoff and the factors influencing it. Even as passengers, these aspects shape our flying experience. What are your thoughts on this intricate process? Have you ever noticed these factors at play during your travels? Share your insights or any questions you might have in the comments section below.


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Maximizing Jet Engine Efficiency: The Benefits of Rolls-Royce’s TotalCare Program



M3 Aviation Group LLC

Rolls-Royce provides a comprehensive engine management service, TotalCare program, that offers multiple engine maintenance plans to its customers. Jet engines are expensive and critical assets, and to maintain their longevity, operators often seek OEMs and third-party facilities for engine maintenance. The TotalCare program includes predictive maintenance planning, work scope management, and off-wing repair and overhaul activities at various OEM and partner locations. Rolls-Royce’s main goal is to manage engines throughout their lifecycle and ensure maximum flying availability for its customers.

Maximizing Time-on-Wing and Shop Visit Cost Risk Transfer

Rolls-Royce’s TotalCare program offers customers a choice in managing engine maintenance by transferring both time-on-wing and shop visit cost risks back to the company. Rolls-Royce aligns its TotalCare maintenance business model with its customers’ operational model to provide maximum time-on-wing for the engines. The company enhances its internal capability to repair and recycle engine components, allowing for on-wing inspection and repair of several internal and external parts without removing the engine. This approach decreases the need for new and spare parts, and accelerates the maintenance process.

Image by: Rolls-Royce

Recycling and Remanufacturing of Engines

According to Rolls-Royce, their TotalCare program can recover and recycle up to 95% of a used engine. Almost half of the recovered materials are of high quality and can be safely remanufactured to create new aerospace components. This approach minimizes the need for OEMs to purchase raw materials, making engine maintenance more sustainable and cost-effective.

TotalCare Engine Management Plans

Rolls-Royce offers three engine management plans through its TotalCare program: TotalCare Life, TotalCare Term, and TotalCare Flex.


TotalCare Life

Under the TotalCare program, customers pay an agreed-upon amount per engine flight hour (EFH) during the engine’s operation, similar to the power-by-the-hour contract offered by many OEMs. Rolls-Royce mandates a minimum term for this plan, and the exact dollar amount per EFH varies based on the customer and usage. If the aircraft and engine are sold to another operator midway between overhauls, the unused maintenance credits can be transferred to the new operator if they also enroll in the TotalCare program.

TotalCare Term

As part of the TotalCare program, the TotalCare Term plan charges an agreed-upon rate per engine flight hour (EFH) to cover expected shop visits for the duration of the agreement. However, if the term ends midway between shop visits, the operator will not have contributed towards the engine life used since the last shop visit. This plan offers a lower rate per EFH, but it limits the services provided within a specific term.

TotalCare Flex

The TotalCare Flex plan is usually used for owned engines that are approaching their retirement age. Under this plan, OEMs offer a complete overhaul to maximize time-on-wing, a partial overhaul that takes the engine to its retirement date, or an engine swap.

Image by: Rolls-Royce

Rolls-Royce’s TotalCare program provides a comprehensive engine management service that ensures maximum time-on-wing and cost-effective maintenance for customers. The program transfers both time-on-wing and shop visit cost risks back to Rolls-Royce, enabling customers to concentrate on their core business while Rolls-Royce assumes responsibility for engine maintenance. The program offers three engine management plans, each customized to meet the specific needs of its customers. Through TotalCare, Rolls-Royce aims to encourage more customers to adopt long-term service agreements and reduce reliance on traditional third-party Maintenance Repair and Overhaul (MRO) services.

Also, you might be interested in reading: Jet Engines: How They Work and Power Modern Aviation?


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Solar Impulse 2: The Groundbreaking Solar-Powered Aircraft that Circled the World




The Solar Impulse 2, a solar-powered aircraft, made history by completing the first circumnavigation of the Earth powered solely by solar energy. Designed by Swiss pioneers Bertrand Piccard and André Borschberg, this innovative aircraft with a wingspan of 72 meters and covered in over 17,000 solar cells showcased the potential of renewable energy in aviation.

The lightweight design, made from advanced materials including carbon fiber, allowed the Solar Impulse 2 to harness solar power during the day and store excess energy in four lithium polymer batteries, enabling it to fly through the night. The aircraft embarked on its journey in 2015 from Abu Dhabi, UAE, and covered over 26,000 miles, with stops in 17 destinations around the world, including India, China, the United States, and Spain.

Despite challenges such as weather delays and battery replacements, the Solar Impulse 2 persevered, highlighting the possibilities of renewable energy in aviation. It had an average flying speed of around 30-40 miles per hour, showcasing that it was not designed for speed, but rather as a platform for promoting sustainability and clean technologies.

During stopovers, the Solar Impulse team engaged in educational and outreach activities, raising awareness about the importance of renewable energy, energy efficiency, and climate change. The success of the Solar Impulse 2 marked a significant milestone in aviation history, inspiring further advancements in sustainable air travel.

In conclusion, the Solar Impulse 2 was a pioneering solar-powered aircraft that completed the first circumnavigation of the Earth powered solely by solar energy. Its lightweight design, advanced materials, and innovative use of solar power showcased the possibilities of renewable energy in aviation. The Solar Impulse 2’s historic journey will be remembered as a milestone in aviation and a testament to the power of human innovation in driving positive change for a more sustainable future.

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