Colonel Merryl Tengesdal, born in the Bronx, New York, in 1971 was the first and only African American woman to fly the United States Air Force’s U-2 spy plane, the unique and famous aircraft used to spy and reconnaissance flown in the Cold War over the Soviet Union, China, Vietnam, and Cuba. Merryl overcame and broke down barriers in more ways than one. She has accomplished what seemed like a mission impossible, to be in Air force being a pilot working for the spy missions and risky operations overseas.

The earth is always pulling us to its centre with its gravity, a force to which all bodies on the planet are subjected to. In the beginning of the space program of United States, reduced gravity was an important matter on the general body behavior, making this study as a key on space exploration and transportation, and a capability of testing the personnel and equipment.

260 years of unsolved and unknown regime of high speed dynamics of gases were broken with the significant flight of the Bell X-1 research vehicle installed under the B-29 bomber of World War II vintage, on October 14, 1947 in the Mojave Desert in California.

The desire of vertical flight was always present, and it grew after the first successful flight of the wright flyer, but the technical limitations for reaching this did not give the needed result. Leonardo da Vinci illustrated a sophisticated “rotary-wing” similar to a helicopter, the main sketch that remain for years without any success.

By the beginning of November this year the first prototype of the MC-21-310 was completed and equipped with Russian engines PD-14. The introduction to the first flight will come true soon, relying on the multiple tests carried out, and the aircraft is in the final line of the assembly waiting for the flight tests that expand the entry to aviation market.

Have you ever been sitting in the airport waiting for your flight whilst watching planes with different sizes taxiing, taking – off, and/or landing infront of you? Did that ever make you wonder what type of planes are these? And how specialists differentiate between them?

Have you ever been on an airplane and wondered how many people are needed to operate this aircraft? Perhaps a pilot, a co-pilot, flight attendants and maybe a relief pilot for longer flights?

Well, there’s also an unsung hero in this whole story and he’s the flight engineer. In this article we’ll explore his role and duties.