This word will never be heard outside of the cockpit; instead, the cabin crew will tell you to stay in your seats, secure your seat belts, and turn off all electronic devices as the plane takes off.
Takeoff is the phase of flight in which an aircraft transitions from moving along the ground to flying in the air, usually beginning on a runway. It is also known as lift-off for aircraft that travel vertically.
Aircraft can take off in a variety of methods. Traditional planes accelerate along the ground until enough lift is generated for takeoff. A short takeoff occurs when a plane can take off at a low speed. Some aircraft as helicopters, balloons, some types of rockets, military aircraft that use tilt rotors as the Bell Boeing V-22 Osprey, and aircraft that use directed jet propulsion, such as the Harrier series are classified as vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) aircraft. The VTOL aircraft don’t need a runway
For a twin-engine plane, the average takeoff will be 30–35 seconds. It will differ depending on the airport’s altitude, the plane’s weight, and the weather. It also has to go through a series of pre-flight procedures as restocking the plane with food and necessary materials, cleaning the plane for its next flight, checks of onboard systems to see if anything needs to be repaired, refueling, pushback, getting the plane in position for its next flight, pre-flight inspections, and boarding.
What happens in the cockpit…
At first, the plane must request permission to take off. Now, it’s time to move into position on the runway, prepare the engines, and do a 80-knot check after it’s obtained the right clearance. Even here, though, rising into the air and lifting off from the ground requires multiple procedures, which must be completed in a matter of seconds or minutes.
The velocities required for takeoff are typically referred to V1, VR, and V2. The length and slope of the runway, as well as any unusual conditions, such as obstructions of the runway’s end, dictate these speeds. With the nose moved 10 degrees upward, VR is engaged, and the rotation begins. This is done to maintain the optimum rate of climb And landing gear is now raised.
When the pilot arrives at the start of the runway, or the line of planes waiting to take off, he will need to do a few final inspections. Then he’ll say over the radio that he is ready for departure. Hence, the Air Traffic Control may respond with one of several options. He might be advised to hold his position, especially if there are other planes ready to take off or to line up and wait, which means he can taxi to the start of the runway and position the aircraft for takeoff. The pilot can’t take off until ATC tells him „cleared for takeoff“ – this is a very important step.
The pilot usually accelerates to full power after aligning the aircraft with the runway in use. As the aircraft’s speed rises, it will try to leave the ground, but the pilot will keep it there until it achieves the ideal speed for takeoff. There is a risk of stalling if he allows it to leave the ground at a slower speed.
More air is flowing across the aircraft wings as it speeds up. Because fast-moving air has a lower pressure than slow-moving air, the pressure above the wing is lower than the pressure below it, according to Bernoulli’s Law. This provides the lift that pushes the plane upward, and it’s also how takeoff is possible.
Also, the pilot must ensure that the plane climbs at the proper angle and speed at this stage. If something goes wrong during the takeoff roll, the pilot will abort it, which means he will apply the brakes and come to a stop on the ground before reaching the end of the runway. Aborted takeoffs occur in all types of aircraft, large and small, though they are uncommon. An aborted takeoff can be caused by many factors, varying from engine issues to a weird feeling that something isn’t quite right. If everything is just fine, then the plane is set to its first heading, adjusted to the desired height, and the cruising power.
The takeoff method is sometimes performed in a slightly different way. This could be due to the runway being relatively short, which is common at small airfields, or the ground being soft if the airfield has grass runways. Short field takeoff begins with a calculation to see if that particular type of plane can even take off in the current conditions.
As a passenger how would you feel?
The pilots apply power once the takeoff checklist is completed and the plane is lined up on the runway. As the plane engines start spinning, you’ll hear a small “roar“.
Small bumps may be felt as the plane moves down the runway; this is due to the runway surface and centerline lights. As the plane’s wheels spin up to speed, you may hear or feel a tiny vibration.
The plane’s nose will tilt up after a few moments, and everything will become quieter and smoother as you take off. When the plane climbs so steeply, you could get the feeling that it will slip back down or tilt over backward. But no, it has never happened, and it never will. The steep angle is expected since it allows us to climb quickly to smoother, more fuel-efficient heights.
If you’re seated near the wings, you might hear the hydraulics humming and bumping, as well as the thump of the landing gear, retracting. You may hear also the thump of the nose gear retracting if you are near the front of the plane. The gear doors open and close during gear retraction. You may feel a sinking sensation shortly after takeoff, which occurs when the flaps are retracted, allowing the plane to speed. Another “ding” sound may follow, notifying the flight attendants that it is safe to leave their seats. However, you must remain seated until the seatbelt sign is turned off. It’s a good idea to go sightseeing shortly after the flight.
Taking off is one of the most exciting moments for both passengers and pilots. It should be truly enjoyed without any fears.
- https://unsplash.com/ (Credit to: Daniel Eledut)