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How many hours do pilots work and rest?

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The topic of flying hours is particularly important in terms of ensuring the safety of passengers.
The FAA or other national authorities set limits on how many hours a pilot can fly in a row and within specific time intervals to ensure the safety of the trip.
To secure the safety of the passengers and the rest of the pilots, pilots follow carefully planned schedules that require a lot of administrative work and software.
These timetables, however tight and well organized, are flexible since they have numerous days off followed by several days of work.

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To begin, you must understand the differences between short and long trips, as well as the differences between flight and duty times.

Long-Distance Flights vs. Short-Distance Flights

A short-haul trip is 30 minutes to 3 hours long, a mid-haul flight is 3 to 6 hours long, a long-haul flight is 6 to 12 hours long, and an ultra-long-haul flight is 12 hours or more long. Depending on the length of the flight, the pilot is impacted by flight time constraints. Long-haul pilots, for example, work longer hours but have longer amounts of time off between workdays than short-haul pilots.

Flight time vs. duty time


The time a pilot spends “on the job” does not just refer to the time he or she spends operating an aircraft on the flight deck.
In a month, one of our member pilots may fly an aircraft for up to 118 hours. “Stick time” refers to the time when they are really at the controls during the flight. However, actual flight time does not represent the number of hours a pilot can be on duty.
To ensure that each flight is performed to the highest level of safety, pilots are responsible for various time-consuming tasks before and after a flight, including weather assessments, completing flight plans, executing pre-flight checks on aircraft, and filing post-flight reports.
A duty day can be more than 14 hours, including pre-and post-flight operations as well as actual flying time, especially if there are weather delays.

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credit to : /aci-apa.com

The Different Types of Pilots and the Number of Hours They Work

The sort of pilot certificate a pilot holds can also influence the number of flight hours he or she works. Flight instructors and airline transport pilots both have more flight hours than the average pilot working in other sorts of flight departments.
Commercial Pilot
A commercial pilot is normally in charge of inspecting the aircraft and its systems for safety and security, including fuel levels and weight and balance, as well as the accuracy of the flight plan if it was prepared by a third party. They must also communicate with air traffic control while navigating the flight’s route and responding to all changes in conditions.
Hours: 75 flight hours and 80 ground hours/month

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Flight Instructor
Student pilots are taught how to operate an airplane, grasp flying concepts, inspect safety features and flight equipment, and safely take off and land the plane by flight instructors. When they are not logging flight hours, they construct particular lesson plans and follow the curriculum for ground training courses. They may also use flight training devices or simulations to train pilots on the ground.
Hours: 80-100 flight hours and 100 ground hours /month

Airline Transport Pilot
An airline transport pilot is employed for a company that transports passengers and freight regularly. A flight crew normally consists of a captain, who serves as a pilot in command and has final authority over the flight, and a co-pilot or first officer. A second officer or flight engineer may be required on some long-haul flights to monitor systems and relieve the other pilots. Many people will be away from home for several days on long-haul and/or overnight flights.
Hours: 75-100 flight hours and 150 ground hours /month.

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What is the maximum number of hours a pilot can fly in a row?

FAA restrictions limit the number of hours that pilots flying for Part 135 and 121 operators can fly in a day, month, or year. There are other restrictions in place for flight instructors and other commercial operations.
Daily
An airline transport pilot can fly for up to 8 hours in 24 hours, or up to 10 hours if there is another pilot on board. Pilots must rest for at least 16 hours after each trip. Depending on the operating specifications of the organization, there are certain exceptions to these rules.
Monthly
The average airline pilot works 75 hours each month, however, they can work up to 100 hours in 30 days.
Yearly
The average airline pilot will fly 700 hours per year and is not allowed to fly more than 1,000 hours in 12 months.

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Credit to : http://www.washingtonpost.com
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In a month, how many days off do pilots get?

Seniority rules the world once more. Junior pilots will get a minimum of 12 days off, while senior pilots will have up to 20 days off. The average length of time is about 15 days. There isn’t a specific number of days off that a pilot takes each week, although it normally averages to 2-3 days off every week.

What Time Do Pilots Get Their Schedules?

The airline has a big influence on when a pilot obtains his or her schedule. Pilots can obtain their schedules up to a month before their first scheduled flight or just a week or two before their first scheduled flight. Schedules are usually obtained by the middle of the month. The amount of trip trading varies by airline, although most pilots fly the routes that are allotted to them.

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Flight Time Limitations

Flight time is defined by the FAA as the amount of time the plane is powered up and moving. This includes not just the flight time, but also duties like taxiing, deicing, and waiting time if the engines are turned on. If there is just one pilot on the trip, the maximum flying time is nine hours if the pilot’s first flight of the day begins between 5 a.m. and 7:59 p.m. The maximum flight time is eight hours if the first flight departs at any other time. The limit can be increased to 13 hours if there are three pilots on the trip, and to 17 hours if there are four pilots.

Flight Duty Limitations

Flight duty begins when a pilot reports for duty with the expectation of conducting a flight and ends after he has parked the plane on which he flew his last flight. Activities such as standing by at the airport, training, and going as a passenger to take over a flight at a different airport constitute flight duty unless the pilot has a rest break that meets FAA guidelines.
The first flying time of the day, the number of pilots on the aircraft, the number of legs on the flight, and the sort of rest facilities available on the plane all influence flight duty constraints. Duty limits for a single flight crew range from nine to fourteen hours. Flight duty limits for several pilots range from 13 to 19 hours.

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Credit to : work.chron.com

Cumulative Limitations

The restrictions limit pilots to 60 hours of flight duty every week, which is defined as 168 hours in a row. A pilot cannot exceed 290 hours in any 28 days, with no more than 100 hours of flight time. Pilots are not allowed to surpass 1,400 flight time hours in 365 days, according to the Code of Federal Regulations.

According to FAA regulations, an airline pilot can fly up to 100 hours per month but not more than 8 hours in 24 hours. Sure, that appears to be a good deal when you realize that most people work 40 hours or more per week, or 160 hours or more per month. Most people believe that airline pilots have it easy. When additional factors are taken into account, such as the amount of time the pilot may be idling around the airport, the reality is quite different. Many pilots perform a 13-hour shift on average. According to current FAA standards, a pilot’s maximum duty day cannot exceed 16 hours. The duty time of a pilot refers to the amount of time he or she is on the job and available to fly.

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When it comes to rest, how much time do pilots need between flights?

According to Simple Flying, rest breaks must be at least 10 hours long, with no exceptions, even for unexpected events. During the rest period, pilots must be able to get eight hours of sleep. The pilot’s rest period begins when he is discharged from duty and concludes when he reports back to duty. A pilot who has been on duty for 8 hours needs 12 hours of rest, whereas a pilot who has been on duty for 16 hours needs 16 hours of rest. When delays occur while you are away from your home base, this can be reduced in some cases. Split Duties can also be used to allow the crew to rest in a hotel while on duty, extending their maximum permissible duty time in the same way that in-flight rest does

Pilots put in a lot of effort, but they also get a lot of perks.

The average pilot works 225 hours per month between flight time and ground tasks; however, depending on seniority, they are allowed anywhere from 12 to 20 days off per month. As you progress through the ranks, you have more control over your schedule, flight routes, home base, compensation, and monthly vacation days.

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Do pilots have to return home every night?

Short-haul domestic flight instructors and pilots can generally return home every night; however, airline pilots who fly longer routes are unable to return home every night and can spend up to two weeks away from home at a time.

To summarize, The hours and schedules of flights are critical factors in ensuring safety. To avoid any more issues, a great deal of calculation must be done.

credit to : http://www.kaspersky.com
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airbus

The Story of the A220, how it Came About and How it’s Becoming Popular

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Forbes

Aside from the fact that the Airbus A220 is the only airbus aircraft to not have a 3 in its name, the A220 is special from the fact that it isn’t fully made by Airbus, but instead a joint venture between them and Bombardier. This is all because of what some might call a mistake made by Boeing, causing Airbus to acquire a 50.01% stake in the company. In this article I explore its controversial creation, and why it’s needed.

Creation

The Airbus A220 was first named the “CSeries” by Bombardier, and was meant to cater to the demand of small aircraft in between their current-sized fleet and those larger already made by Airbus and Boeing. The particular area where it was expected to boom were the US markets, given there is always demand to be flying from small airports as there is no lack of them in the large country. At first, things were running smoothly and it was expected to enter commercial service in 2014, just one year after its first flight. However, things turned out not to go as planned, and the CSeries encountered issues on one of its test flights, causing it to miss the Farnborough air show, the largest in the industry, and delay its release. This was not good for the aircraft, nearly causing the project and the company to go bust, until financial aid was provided by the Canadian government.

(Credit: Simple Flying)

Boeing’s crucial mistake

Eventually, these problems were fixed, and the first CSeries was delivered to SWISS on June 26, 2016. Eventually, more orders began to come for the new aircraft, including the critical ones in the US. In fact, Bombardier was offering Delta 75 of the aircraft at $20 million a piece, a price which was even lower than the cost to build them, and a cost which was just too good to refuse. However, this was contested and was seen to be Dumping, when a manufacturer essentially gives away its aircraft as sort-of “Samples”, and is illegal in the US and other countries. Boeing was quick to take action, claiming that it was stealing the market from its 737s, despite the fact that Delta had explicitly said that they weren’t looking to purchase the variants that Boeing were claiming to be losing out. It was then decided that, given Bombardier was a foreign company, the US government would impose a 300% import tariff, something near-destructible for the company.

(Credit: Aviation Week)

Airbus saves the day

However, Airbus decided to step in and acquire a 50% stake in the company, something beneficial for both parties concerned. This was good for Bombardier, as Airbus has its final assembly station situated in Alabama in the US, meaning that seen as the aircraft technically wasn’t foreign, the import tariff wouldn’t be imposed on it. This would also help Airbus, as it would mean that the company would now profit off of an aircraft which had no competitors at the time. This allowed the aircraft to be reintroduced to the US market, allowing it to thrive.

(Credit: Aviation Week)

Where it is now

Now, the CSeries has been re-branded to be the Airbus A220, a move which has knocked it out of the park for the world’s largest aircraft manufacturer. This has allowed airbus to spend absolutely no money on development, and come away with an excellent aircraft, which is dominating its playing field. As of April 2023, 251 aircraft have been delivered, with another 785 firm orders. The airlines operating the aircraft include Delta, JetBlue, SWISS and airBaltic, who operate a fleet solely made up of the A220. When Aviation for Aviators asked their CEO, Martin Gauss, about the aircraft, he said that “The aircraft has performed beyond the company’s expectations, delivering better overall performance, fuel efficiency, and convenience for both passengers and the staff.”

(Credit: Wikipedia)

Sources:

  • Wendover Productions
  • Simple Flying
  • airBaltic
  • Delta
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Airlines of the World

An interview with Helvetic Airways CEO, Tobias Pogorevc

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Helvetic Airways is a Swiss airline which operates its fleet of Embraer aircraft to destinations such as Greek islands and the Egyptian Red sea coast from their hubs in Switzerland. Their CEO, Tobias Pogorevc, has been in charge of the company since 2018 and overseen major developments such as the introduction of the Embraer E195 E2 and E190 E2 to their fleet. I put some questions to the man himself about the environment and the pandemic.

What do you see as the biggest challenge to the aviation industry at the moment?

One of the biggest challenges in the entire aviation industry is the staff situation. The pandemic
disrupted the entire aviation ecosystem and the situation is still very tense in the personnel area – both
on the ground and in the air. Helvetic Airways was able to counteract the natural fluctuation in the
cabin through early recruitment measures. In addition, as of the beginning of 2023, Helvetic Airways
has significantly expanded its existing and very popular part-time models for cabin crews, and now
offers various innovative models with “Fly your way”, in which cabin attendants can determine their
own assignments on a weekly, monthly or annual basis. Today, we employ over 240 flight attendants
and senior flight attendants in the cabin crew – more than ever before in the history of Helvetic
Airways.
In the cockpit, we benefit from the good and long-standing cooperation with our sister company
Horizon Swiss Flight Academy. From this pool, we were able to recruit 24 pilots this year.
Another challenge relates to supply chains, from carpet suppliers to engine manufacturers. This will
keep the industry busy for a long time to come.

(Image credit: Aviator Newsroom)

How are you lessening the impact of Helvetic’s aircraft?

Helvetic Airways has renewed almost its entire fleet between 2019 and 2021 and now has 12 state-of-
the-art Embraer E2s – eight E190-E2s with 110 seats and four E195-E2s with 134 seats – and four
Embraer E190s. Helvetic Airways thus operates one of the most modern regional jet fleets in Europe
and the most modern fleet in Switzerland. The Embraer-E2 is currently the most environmentally
friendly regional aircraft on the market. Compared to the E1, the E190-E2 consumes 20 to 23% less
fuel per seat on European routes and the E195-E2 up to 30% less. Our own measured values are
even higher than Embraer’s factory specifications.

The E2 also sets new standards in terms of noise emissions, impressing in particular with its low noise
levels both inside the cabin and outside. The noise diagrams for departures from Zurich Airport show:
The noise contour of the Embraer E195-E2 is 28% lower than for the Airbus A319 and 60% lower than
for the Airbus A320. Particularly for airports near densely populated areas, the ability to reduce the
noise impact on people is an important factor.

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What lessons did you learn from the pandemic?

In aviation, crisis situations are regularly trained for, but no one was prepared for a global crisis like the
Corona pandemic. We kept all our crews current during the pandemic so that we would be ready when
business picked up again. In retrospect, that was absolutely the right decision. But then the restart
happened faster than expected. On the one hand, we all had to get back to the “old normal” as quickly
as possible; on the other hand, the pandemic was not yet over – a balancing act that placed enormous
demands on the entire industry.
The pandemic showed us that even when things are at a standstill, you always have to keep moving.
As an airline with lean structures, we have the opportunity to implement new ideas and innovations
quickly, which proved its worth during the restart after the pandemic.

(Image credit: Aviation24be)

How is the Russo-Ukrainian war affecting Helvetic Airways’ business?

The Ukraine war and the fates associated with it are terrible but have no immediate impact on us as a
regional airline from an operational point of view. Our routes do not pass over Russian or Ukrainian
territory, which may not be flown over at present. What we do feel, however, are the indirect effects of
the war, for example on the fuel prices.

You have been CEO of the company since 2018, what has been the biggest change you have seen in the company since you became in charge?

On the one hand, as a small, private company, the fleet renewal to an E2 fleet has been very busy for
us. It is something special that we, as a niche player, can rely on the most modern fleet. But this is
only possible thanks to the financial strength of our owner, which got us through the Covid crisis even
without government aid. Today, we are financially strong, with no liabilities.
On the other hand, there was the biggest difference in the area of human resources: the needs that
applied in 2018 are outdated today. Today, we need to offer innovative and flexible working models to
recruit the best young talent. Work-life balance, diversity, inclusion must not just be buzzwords, they
must be lived.

Mr Pogorevc has been CEO of the company since 2018 (Image credit: Helvetic Airways)

Helvetic airways operates a fleet solely made up of Embraer aircraft, why was the decision made to do this?

Before unifying to an all Embraer fleet, Helvetic Airways operated Fokker100 aircraft, an Airbus A319
and Embraer E1 aircraft, four of which are still in our fleet today. The cooperation with Embraer was
excellent from the beginning and the development of the E2 series progressed well also due to our
experience and input from Switzerland. So the decision was also obvious to carry out the planned fleet
renewal in 2019 to 2021 with the new Embraer E2 models. The Embraer E2 is an aircraft of the latest
generation and therefore the right aircraft for the future. The E2 consumes significantly less fuel than
the E1 and, especially in times of high kerosene prices, it makes economic sense to operate an
aircraft that saves 20 to 30% fuel on certain routes at high load factors.
Another key reason for choosing the E2 jet was the commonalities, which is particularly advantageous
in the areas of training and maintenance.
All our pilots are certified for both the E1 and the E2, and the maintenance in our hangar is also
certified for both types of aircraft. We operate the aircraft, we maintain it and we have our own flight
school, the Horizon Swiss Flight Academy, where we train our pilots and engineers – all from Zurich.
In other words, we have specialists for all areas: training, operations and maintenance – in effect we
have become the Embraer competence center in Europe.

(Image credit: Flickr)

And Finally, what can we see in the near future for Helvetic airways?

First and foremost, our goal is to continue to offer our partners, customers and passengers reliable
flight operations with top service. In doing so, we will continue to rely on our three main pillars of
wetlease, charter and scheduled flights. Furthermore, we want to remain a good and modern employer
for our employees. Due to our manageable size, we remain agile and score with innovation and a
family atmosphere with flat hierarchies. We will continue to promote this spirit. From April, for example,
the first “Helvetic shared apartments” will be ready for occupancy – apartments rented by Helvetic
Airways and sublet to employees who do not have their main place of residence in Zurich. These
colleagues should immediately feel at home in our Helvetic family!

(Credit: Helvetic Airways)

Cover image credit: Flikr

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Aviation

Brussels Airlines’ Female Crew on International Women’s Day 2023

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Brussels Airlines Airbus 320, painted with the Bruegel Livery. Taken at Ben Gurion airport.

On March 8th, International Women’s Day 2023, Brussels Airlines made history by operating a flight from Brussels to Marseille with an all-female cockpit crew. This milestone marks the first time that the airline had ever flown with an all-female cockpit crew, and it sends a powerful message of support for gender equality in the aviation industry.

Brussels Airlines is the flag carrier airline of Belgium and operates flights to over 120 destinations, with a fleet of more than 50 aircraft offering both economy and business class seating. The airline is also committed to sustainability and supports social initiatives through its charity program, b.foundation for Africa. Its subsidiary, Brussels Airlines Cargo, provides cargo services.

Captain Anne-Sophie Godart, First Officer Charlotte Verstraete, and Flight Engineer Virginie Dupon, all highly experienced pilots with a combined total of more than 25,000 flight hours, were the crew who operated the special flight. The three women were honored to be part of this historic event, with Captain Godart stating, “It’s an honor to be part of this flight and to be able to make a statement about gender equality in the aviation industry. We are proud to be able to show that women can do the same job as men, and that we can do it just as well.”

The flight was a success, and the crew received cheers and applause upon arrival in Marseille. It was a powerful statement of support for gender equality in the aviation industry, and a reminder that women are capable of anything men can do.

Brussels Airlines has been actively recruiting more female pilots and creating a more inclusive and supportive work environment for all of its employees. This flight was a proud moment for the airline, which is committed to promoting gender equality in the aviation industry and providing equal opportunities for all.

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As International Women’s Day 2023 is celebrated, it is a time to acknowledge the progress made in the fight for gender equality, but also recognize the work that still needs to be done. Brussels Airlines‘ all-female cockpit crew serves as a beacon of hope for aspiring female pilots and a symbol of progress for the aviation industry as a whole.

Let us soar higher on this International Women’s Day 2023, celebrating the fearless women who have conquered the skies and shattered stereotypes in aviation, inspiring generations to come.

Captain Anne-Sophie Godart, pilot of Brussels Airlines’ all-female crew, celebrates International Women’s Day 2023 in the cockpit
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