As we know, the 1st industrial revolution was mainly started because of the steam engine which started at 1760s. From this point the innovation in the steam engine made it to the ICE or the internal combustion engine. The ICE has revolutionized the world transportation until now. This type of engine is first type in our story of aircraft propulsion.
The fundamental of the of the ICE engine is behind the four steps to produce shaft work (intake, compression, power, exhaust). The cylinder is the important part that moves in a reciprocating motion to produce the shaft work through crankshaft.
The work from the shaft was directly directed to the impeller which produces the thrust power. The thrust power works under the third law of motion which states that for every action (force) in nature there is an equal and opposite reaction. The air will push back the aircraft and the aircraft will be pushed forward.
The improvements of the ICE engine have been revolutionised throughout World War 2 by adding machines which compress more air inside the intake of the engine to produce more power called turbos. However, to make the aircraft reach higher speeds the ICE will heavier than before and the aircraft will weigh more, thus the revolution which came from Germany is called the jet engine.
The jet engines also works on the same principle of the third law of motion but this time it is not intended to produce shaft power with limited speeds but only to produce thrust power in huge amounts to propel a huge dense aircraft such as A380 or B747. The improvement of the Turbine of jet engine came by including a big fan in front of the engine which provides a denser air to be compressed and provide cooling to the inner core of the engine.